Caregiver Intervention Database

Brief structured Cognitive Behaviorial Therapy (Akkerman)

Dementia

A brief (9 week) structured Cognitive Behavioral Therapy group (led by PI meeting for 2hrs, 4-8 cg/ group) consisting of didactic skills training to reduce anxiety, provided handouts and encouraged to practice skills.

Cognitive-behavioral video-assisted modeling program (Chang)

Dementia

Cognitive-behavioral video-assisted modeling program targeting caregiving skills guided by stress & coping framework. 8-week intervention had two components: 1. videotapes demonstrating assisted modeling behavior (eating & dressing); 2. support program to reinforce video information and to explore coping strategies (via Nurseline phone calls)

REACH trial with 2 intervention groups (Coon)

Dementia

This was a REACH trial with 2 intervention groups: 1)anger management and 2) depression management. Both were 2-hour workshop-format groups, for 8 weeks and then monthly booster for 2 months (10 sessions total, 8-10 cg/ class). Anger Intervention: Present cognitive-behavioral model and treatment rationale, discuss sources of caregiver frustration, and relaxation skills. Taught specific cognitive skills: positive self-talk, monitoring thoughts assoc. w frustration. Development of assertiveness skills

Training in Communication skills for dementia caregivers (Done)

Dementia

Communication skills workshop was compared with an information booklet. Therapist-led intervention: 10 30-second videos each depicting a communication breakdown, facilitated group discussion; information booklet with similar content as videos without discussion.

Taking Care of Myself group intervention (Ducharme)

Dementia

10-week (1.5 hr) group intervention entitled "taking care of myself", based on the stress

Worksite based internet multimedia program (Beauchamp)

Dementia

Personalized worksite based interactive internet multimedia program for dementia caregivers; modules include Being a Caregiver, Coping with Emotions, Common Difficulties. The coping strategies emphasize problem-focused techniques and social support skills.

Care Consultation telephone-based empowerment intervention (Bass)

Dementia

Based on a model of empowerment, the care consultant conducts structured initial assessment and works with families to help identify personal strengths. Provides tools to increase caregiver competence and self-efficacy and to help them make own decisions. Also provides information about community services and facilitates decisions about how to utilize services.

REACH II Intervention (Schulz and colleagues)

Dementia

REACH II interventions included: provision of information, didactic instruction, role playing, problem solving, skills training, stress management, and telephone support groups. There were 12 1.5 hr. sessions over 6 months (9 in home and 3 phone sessions). There were resource notebooks with educational materials and telephones linked to computer-integrated system. Based on findings that active techniques are more effective at improving outcomes compared with more passive techniques.

Skills training for spouses of patients with AD (Bourgeois)

Dementia

Two 12-week intervention groups (patient-focused skills training, caregiver-focused skills training) were compared with a control group. In Week 2, each caregiver attended 1 of 2 3-hr workshops: 1) Patient-Change Workshop, consisting of introductions, presentation of general behavioral principles as they relate to dementia symptoms, overview of in-home training sessions, and review of caregiver-completed Problem Behavior Tracking forms 2) Self-Change Workshop, consisting of introductions, presentation of three self-change strategies, overview of in-home training sessions, and review of completed Problem Behavior Tracking forms. In Weeks 3-12, trained staff visited caregiver for 1 hr at home to individualize skills training to caregivers' needs.

Individualized plan of care based on Progressively Lowered Stress Threshold (PLST) model (Buckwalter)

Dementia

Individualized plan of care based on the Progressively Lowered Stress Threshold (PLST) model (need environmental modifications because of declining cognitive/functional abilities; this reduces stress and promotes functional adaptive behavior); community-based psychoeducational intervention, combined with routine information and referrals. Approximately 3 to 4 hours of in-home intervention, and biweekly follow-up phone calls for 6 months.

REACH I trial (Burgio)

Dementia

This was a REACH I trial with 2 intervention groups: 1)Minimal support condition (MSC) and 2) behavioral skills training (BST). The MSC received 10 phone contacts and 3 mailed packages of therapeutic material over a 12 month period. The phone contacts provided support composed of empathic statements and active listening. The STC received 10 hour-long, in home sessions over a 12 month period. STC consisted of: 1) basic therapeutic information, 2) instruction on behavior management techniques and assistance in setting-up individualized behavior programs fo problem behavior, 3) problem solving training to help the caregiver reach goals to ameliorate distress, 4) cognitive restructuring to encourage benign appraisals of stressors.

Multidisciplinary collaborative care (Callahan)

Dementia

Multidisciplinary team (collaborative care, led by advanced practice nurse) working with family caregiver (for one year) used standard protocols to initiate treatment and identify, monitor, and treat behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, stressing nonpharmacological management. Intervention was based on consensus guidelines for the care of patients with Alzheimer disease.

Psycho-educational intervention for caregivers of patients receiving pallative care (Hudson)

Cancer

A caregiver guidebook and audiotape used as basis for nurse interactions (2 home visits w/ phone call between visits, based on intervention materials modeled after stress and coping theory.) Guidebook provides caregivers with written information related to aspects of caring for a dying person. Audiotape features reflections from carers, self-care strategies and structured relaxation exercises.

REACH family therapy trial (Eisdorfer)

Dementia

REACH family therapy trial focused on family interactions based on structural ecosystems therapy (SET), SET+ computer-telephone integrated system (CTIS), or minimal support control condition. The CTIS system was designed to augment the SET intervention by providing the caregiver with enhanced access to formal and informal resources. Intervention occurred over 12 months: weekly sessions for 4 mo., biweekly for 2 mo., and monthly for 6 mo. 60-90 min/ session. Approx 14 hrs/ caregiver. Most sessions in caregiver's home.

Brief psychologist-led group for spouses (Bultz)

Cancer

Brief (6 session) psychologist-led group for spouses developed based on psychoeducation, support, and communication literature. First two groups had educational/ medical component (questions answered by medical onconologist); remaining groups were supportive in nature, less structured, and focused on building communication with patient.

Standardized home-care nursing intervention (Jepson/McCorkle)

Cancer

Standardized home-care nursing intervention (3 home visits and 6 phone calls) delivered to caregivers, including problem assessment and monitoring, symptom management, self-care, coordination of resources.

REACH trial comparing interventions (Gallagher-Thompson)

Dementia

REACH trial compared 2 types of interventions: 1)Coping With Caregiving psychoeducational program (instruction and practice in groups to learn specific adaptive cognitive and behavioral skills); 2) Enhanced Support Group condition (guided discussion and empathic listening to develop reciprocal support within the group (based on typical community support groups and principles in Alz. Assoc. Manual). Groups met weekly (10 weeks), delivered by mental health professionals. All caregivers received same dementia-related educational materials.

Nursing intervention for cancer caregivers (Kozachik, et al.)

Cancer

A nursing intervention emphasizing symptom monitoring/management, education, emotional support, coordination of services, and caregiver preparation to care. Nurses made a total of nine contacts, five in person and four by telephone, over 16 weeks.

Psychoeducational group intervention for wives of men w/prostate cancer (Manne)

Cancer

Structured psychoeducational 6-week (1 hr) group led by trained professionals,(psychologist, social worker, nutritionist). Session content consisted of health-related or psychological information. Group psychological content divided into: coping skills and open communication/ social support. Coping skills topics included education about adaptive/ maladaptive techniques.

Community-based psychoeducational intervention (Garand)

Dementia

Community-based psychoeducational intervention designed to help manage patient behavioral problems based on PLST model (progressively lowered stress threshold) was compared with routine info and referrals. Approximately 3 to 4 hours of in-home intervention, and biweekly follow-up phone calls for 6 months.

Learning to Feel Better (Hebert)

Dementia

Group caregiver support program for dementia caregivers that is based on stress and coping theories

Family-based FOCUS intervention (Northouse)

Cancer

Family-based intervention based on 5 core components that form the acronym FOCUS (Family involvement, Optimistic attitude, Coping effectiveness, Uncertainty reduction, Symptom management). Consisted of 5 nurse-led contacts- 3 (1.5hour) in-home visits spaced monthly and 2 phone follow-ups.

Memory Clinic Intervention (Logiudice)

Dementia

Intervention took place via existing memory clinic and consisted of advice, counseling, and patient neuropsychological testing, with feedback provided to family with appropriate services referrals made.

Integrated telephone-linked care intervention (Mahoney)

Dementia

Integrated telephone-linked care intervention (based on stress process theory) with IVR computer network system offers multiple components with flexibility to appeal to variety of users reflecting diverse caregiver needs/ preferences. The following system modules were available to participants: Weekly Caregiver's Conversation, Personal Mailbox, Bulletin Board, Activity-Respite Conversation

Family Visit Education Program (McCallion)

Dementia

Family Visit Education Program (FVEP) conducted on family members, nursing staff, and nursing home residents with dementia.

Psychoeducation Group (McCurry)

Dementia

Psychoeducation group for 6 weeks: standard sleep hygiene, stimulus control, and sleep compression strategies; education about community resources, stress management, and techniques to reduce patient disruptive behaviors. Participants also kept sleep diary during period of intervention.

NYU Caregiver Counseling and Support Intervention (Mittelman)

Dementia

1st component: 2 individual and 4 family counseling sessions (w/ relatives suggested by the caregiver, but without the patient). Content determined by needs of each cg (e.g., learning behavioral mgmt techniques, promoting communication among family members). Counselors also provided disease-specific education and community resources. 2nd component: weekly enhanced support group. 3rd component: ad hoc counseling over the course of the disease. (led by social workers/ allied health professionals). Also, long-term follow-up of cg (for two years after patient's death) and LT follow-up of intervention effects (for 5 years, will continue +)

Multiple-component support intervention (Mohide)

Dementia

Multiple-component 6-month intervention for caregiver-focused health care, dementia and caregiving education (written materials), problem-solving assistance, regularly scheduled in-home respite (4 hrs/week), and self-help family caregiver support group (monthly 2-hr group)

Home visiting intervention with Psychologist and OT (Nobili)

Dementia

One 1-hr home visit by psychologist to discuss family dynamics, caregiver stress and psychologic consequences, verbal

Savvy Caregiver (Ostwald/Hepburn)

Dementia

Savvy Caregiver is intended to train families and others for the unfamiliar role they face as caregiver for a relative or friend with Alzheimer's disease or another dementia. Savvy Caregiver is a 12-hour training program that is usually delivered in 2-hour sessions over a 6-week period.

Individualized plan of care based on Progressively Lowered Stress Threshold (PLST) model (Stolley)

Dementia

Individualized plan of care based on the Progressively Lowered Stress Threshold (PLST) model (need envir. modifications b/c of declining cognitive/ functional abilities, reducing stress promotes functional adaptive behavior); Community-based psychoeducational intervention compared with routine info and referrals. Approximately 3 to 4 hours of in-home intervention, and biweekly follow-up phone calls for 6 months, compared with routine info and referrals - 4 year longitudinal study (see Buckwalter, 1999).

STAR-C Intervention (Teri)

Dementia

STAR-Caregivers (STAR-C) is a standardized intervention to help family caregivers identify, reduce, and manage difficult behavioral symptoms of their relative with Alzheimer's disease. Behavioral symptoms are a major cause of family caregiver stress, burden, and depression. STAR-C decreases both the symptoms and the caregivers' related feelings of stress, burden, and depression.

Geriatric Home Hospitalization Services (Tibaldi)

Dementia

Geriatric Home Hospitalization Services (GHHS)- medical care at home. Training in emergency procedures, provision of necessary supplies, and need-based services over time. Availability of professional services by phone 12 hrs/ day provided by multidisciplinary team.

Coordinated system of care intervention (Vickery)

Dementia

Coordinated system of care intervention by care managers of patient-caregiver pairs using computerized information systems. Guideline-based provision of services. Care manager (social workers) coordinated with caregiver to generate menu of care actions.

Stroke Nurse intervention (Burton)

Stroke

A nursing care intervention consistsing of a holistic evaluation by stroke nurse soon after patient discharge which considered: patient and caregiver physical functioning, knowledge of consequences and implications of stroke, abilities to cope emotionally with aftermath of stroke, the potential of the home environment to support recovery, medication adherence, appropriateness and effectiveness, transfer of care arrangements, and health promotion, including education, stroke prevention and use of resources to support recovery. Follow-up visits over several months as needed (average # visits =3) Telephone # for stroke nurse distributed.

Education & Counseling Stroke intervention (Clark)

Stroke

Stroke information packet distributed at rehab discharge, with 3 1-hr home visits from family counselor (1st session 3 weeks post-discharge, follow-ups at 2 & 5 months) Information packet contained general stroke information; counseling focused on stroke-related distress and was modeled after family systems theory.

Social Problem-Solving Telephone Partnerships (Grant)

Stroke

Social Problem-Solving Telephone Partnerships: Caregivers taught to use a positive problem orientation and 4 systematic steps when solving cg problems: (1) identify and define problem, (2) decide what needs to be accomplished and list possible solutions, (3) choose and test the best solution(s), and (4) evaluate outcomes of problem solving. There was an initial 3-hr session w/ nurse in home after patient discharge followed by weekly (weeks 2, 3, and 4) and biweekly (weeks 6, 8, 10, 12) phone contacts to develop/ maintain skills over 12 weeks.

Professional instruction for stroke carers (Kalra)

Stroke

Instruction (3-5 sessions, 30-45 min. each, depending on needs) by appropriate professionals on common stroke related problems.

Family Support Organizer stroke intervention (Mant)

Stroke

Nature of Family Support Organizer "FSO" contact varied by needs of caregiver. FSO group received 8 stroke leaflets w/ stroke info. (e.g. causes, effects) and community resources distributed one week post-stroke. 6-mo follow-up home visit

Family Support Organizer stroke intervention (Tilling)

Stroke

Part of a national program in the UK, the role of the family support organizer (FSO) was to offer information, emotional support and prevention advice to families and stroke patients, aimed to cover the gap in support when formal treatment or therapy ends.

Group mental health intervention (Cheng/Chan)

Mental Health

Group intervention targeting knowledge and treatment of the illness, management of symptoms and medication, dealing with crisis, mental health services, communication and problem-solving skills, and stress-coping skills. Occurred in 10 weekly 2-hr sessions based on Atkinson and Coia's program framework.

Mutual support group (Chien)

Mental Health

3-month mutual support group meeting weekly for 2 hr/week led by psychiatric nurse and peer leader; routine psychiatric outpatient services. Principles guiding intervention (based on previous family caregiver support interventions): (1) sharing personal data (2) fostering problem-solving, (3) encouraging discussion of taboo areas, (4) fostering a sense of "all-in-the-same boat", (5) encouraging mutual support, and (6) providing opportunities of individual problem solving.

Structured weekly supportive intervention groups (Chou)

Mental Health

Structured supportive intervention groups meeting weekly for 8 1.5 hour sessions co-led by trained psychiatric nurse. Sessions included principles such as encouraging ventilation, validation of similar caregiving experiences, affirmation, praise, and support and understanding for those struggling with difficult situations. Also disseminated information. Guided by Caregiver Support Group Procedure Manuals (CSGPM).

Journey of Hope education course (Pickett-Schenk)

Mental Health

Family-led (trained volunteer) 8 week manual-led education course, Journey of Hope. Course designed by professionals and participants met weekly for 1.5-2 hours/ week. Goals of the course include: disease education (e.g. how to recognize signs of relapse, biological basis of disease), communication skills, coping skills, interacting with the health care system, caregiver self-care, how to develop empathy for relative.

Psychoeducational family approach with family education (Ran)

Mental Health

Psychoeducational family approach with family education once per month for 9 mo. (1.5-3hrs), Family workshops every 3 months, and crisis intervention when necessary. Family education taught basic knowledge of mental diseases, treatment and rehabilitation, based on the vulnerability-stress model. Advice and information tailored to patient status. During workshops, questions were discussed and relatives shared the experiences of caring for patients.

Clinical assessment & management of caregiver stress (Baldwin)

Miscellaneous

Clinical assessment and management of family caregiver stress, comparing educative/ didactic vs. psychotherapeutic/ support. 8 weekly 2-hr group sessions

Creating avenues for relative empowerment (Li)

Miscellaneous

Pilot study 1) educational component (based on self-regulation theory) consisted of audiotaped information to facilitate forming a clear, unambiguous cognitive schema about expectations in their hospitalized elders to guide emotional and behavioral responses. 2) mutual agreement contract component (based on role theory): after listening to audiotape, family cgs select 2/5 possible dysfunctional symptoms (based on needs, preferences) to focus on in providing care, with the goal being empowerment . 3.) Phase II audiotape reinforced the critical content of the initial audiotape and provided additional information for follow-up care.

Couple-Oriented Education and Support Intervention for Osteoarthritis (Martire)

Miscellaneous

A group education and support intervention that consisted of six weekly 2-hr sessions attended by older individuals with OA and their spouses, based on the format of the Arthritis Self-Management Program (ASMP) developed by Lorig and colleagues.

Caring for others Pilot Study (Marziali)

Miscellaneous

Caring for Others pilot study was a 10-session, manual-guided video-conference therapist-led psychosocial support group, followed by 12 online sessions facilitated by group member. Based on psychosocial, lifespan perspective, included: training, computer access and password-protected disease website/ chat/ discussion, online (manual-guided) support group. The aim was to provide therapeutic support by helping members understand how personal styles for regulating emotions and processing information either advanced or thwarted caregiving role functions.

Psychosocial Intervention for HIV/AIDS Caregivers (Pakenham)

Miscellaneous

In-home sessions (8 weekly, 1.5 hr sessions) with psychologist for both intervention groups (DI and CI), which were based on reciprocal determinism concept of caring dyads. Dyadic intervention (DI): eclectic, leaning toward structured problem solving approach using psychoeducational and cognitive-behavioral intervention techniques, also Rogerian (client-centered) therapy. Techniques varied by needs. Also had smaller caregiver intervention (CI) group.

Health education groups for caregivers (Toseland)

Miscellaneous

Eight weekly sessions and 10 monthly follow-up sessions focused on coping, education and support. Groups taught coping strategies and education about resources for support, also provided support.

Psychoeducational group intervention for dementia caregivers (Perren)

Dementia

The caregiver 8-week psycho-educational group intervention aimed at: (a) imparting knowledge regarding symptoms of dementia and the course of disease; (b) strengthening of self-perception to improve self-care; (c) optimising the relationship dynamics between care recipient and caregiver; and (d) increasing social competence to enable caregivers to solicit social support and to use formal help such as respite care (taken from Wettstein et al., 2005, not published in English).

Stress & coping stroke interventions (van den Heuvel)

Stroke

Compared 2 interventions based on stress & coping model; weekly group support program and home visits.

Future Planning Curriculum for Familes & Adult Relatives with Developmental Disabilities (Heller/Caldwell)

Developmental Disability

The Future is Now intervention is a peer support intervention developed to support aging caregivers and adults with developmental disabilities in planning for the future.

Southern Illinois Rural Caregiver Telehealth Project (Chwalisz/Dollinger)

Rural Caregiving

Supportive services and resources through the Tele-Help Line for Caregiers are provided during structured telephone counseling sessions.

Psychosocial Interventions for Family Caregivers of Individuals with Dementia - a REACH 1 Trial (Burgio)

Dementia

A REACH 1 trial with 2 intervention groups: 1) minimal support condition (MSC) and behaviorial skills training (BST).

Reducing Disability in Alzheimer's Disease (Teri)

Dementia

The RDAD intervention was a caregiver education program that combined exercise training with teaching caregivers how to manage dementia-related behavior problems in persons with Alzheimer's disease.

Dementia Caregiver Education (Wettstein, Perren)

Dementia

Group education modules for dementia caregivers compared with those receiving a memory training manual.

Coping with Caregiving (Gallagher-Thompson)

Dementia

A psycho-educational group intervention that teaches mood management skills through two key approaches: first, an emphasis on reducing negative affect by learning how to relax in the stressful situation, appraise the care-receiver's behavior more realistically, and communicate more assertively; and second, an emphasis on increasing positive mood through the acquisition of such skills as seeing the contingency between mood and activities, developing strategies to do more small, everyday pleasant activities, and learning to set self change goals and reward oneself for accomplishments along the way.

PST for Family Caregivers of Persons with Recent-Onset Spinal Cord Injuries (Elliott)

Miscellaneous

3 face-to-face problem solving training sessions, educational materials, telephone contacts as requested for 1 year

Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment (Melnyk)

Miscellaneous

four-phase educational-behavioral intervention program

PST for Family Caregivers of Persons with Traumatic Brain Injuries (Rivera)

Miscellaneous

Problem-solving training program to lower depression, health complaints, and burden, and increase well-being reported by community-residing family caregivers of persons with TBI's.

PST for Family Caregivers of Women with Disabilities (Elliott)

Miscellaneous

Caregivers who received PST reported a significant linear decrease in depression over time and displayed an increase in constructive problem-solving styles

Anger and Depression Management (Gallagher-Thompson)

Dementia

Anger management/Depression management intervention resulted in significant reductions in levels of anger, hostility and/or depression

Skills2Care (Gitlin)

Dementia

A home-based environmental intervention designed to help family caregivers of persons with dementia.

Care Transitions (Coleman)

Miscellaneous

The goal of this program is to improve care transitions by providing patients and their caregivers with tools and support to encourage them to more actively participate in transitions from hospital to home.

Caring for You, Caring for Me - 2nd Edition

Miscellaneous

This 10-hour program, conducted in five two-hour modules, addresses the needs of family and professional caregivers by bringing them together in a relaxed setting to discuss common issues, share ideas, and gain a better understanding of each other's perspective on what it means to be a caregiver.

Stress-Busting Program for Family Caregivers

Dementia

The Stress-Busting Program provides caregivers information about stress (particularly stress associated with caregiving), how to deal with stress through relaxation and problem solving, and how to care for themselves while caring for a loved one with dementia. In addition, there is information about caring for a person with dementia.

Project Focus

Miscellaneous

Project FOCUS is an individualized problem-solving intervention provided to family caregivers of persons with spinal cord injuries to benefit caregivers and their care recipients.

The Guided Care Program for Families and Friends

Miscellaneous

The Guided Care Program for Families and Friends (GCPFF) is one component of "Guided Care" (GC), a model of primary care for chronically ill older adults that is facilitated by a registered nurse who has completed a supplemental educational curriculum. The GCPFF melds support for family caregivers with the delivery of coordinated and comprehensive chronic care and seeks to improve the health and well-being of both patients and their family caregivers.

TCARE®: Tailored Caregiver Assessment and Referral®

Miscellaneous

TCARE® (Tailored Caregiver Assessment and Referral®) is an evidence-based, six step care management program developed in 2007 by Dr. Rhonda JV Montgomery and colleagues at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. TCARE® provides care managers with an efficient way to triage resources and available support services within a community to effectively address caregivers needs.

Project CLUES

Physical Disability

Developed in 2002 with support from the National Institute of Child Health and Development, the National Institute of Disability Research and Rehabilitation, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control at the Centers for Disease Control, Project CLUES is an individualized problem-solving intervention for family caregivers of persons with severe disabilities.

Home-Based Psychoeducational Program for Spousal Caregivers of Stroke Patients

Stroke

The focus of this intervention was on the caregiver stroke survivor dyad, and provided education, counseling, skill training and community referrals in joint sessions at home and/or mailed to the couple. The intervention lasted for the first year after discharge from rehabilitation. The intensive home-based intervention lasted for 6 months after discharge, hoping to take advantage of neuroplasticity and thus speed recovery.